Karachi, Country’s first law university is being established in Karachi. In this regard an approval has been made by the Sindh Governor Dr Ishratul Ibad for setting up of Law University.
The statement was released on Thursday and declared that the institution would be established in Karachi. Retired Justice Khalid Ali Z. Qazi would be chosen as vicechancellor of the law university. The government of Saudi Arabia has started a project “The School Bag Distribution Project” to deliver 15,000 school bags among needy students across the country. In this regard, Pakistan BaitulMal (PBM) arranged an inspiring ceremony at the Jinnah Stadium and Saudi Ambassador to Pakistan Dr. Abdul Aziz Ibrahim AlGhadeer introduced this project. The Saudi ambassador while expressing his views said that the project has been introduced to support and minimize the problems which parents of children are facing and are unable to provide facilities to their children in the areas affected by natural disasters in recent years. Saudi Arabia would provide bags having books, stationary and other things, he added. He said that the project is being introduced on worth of 26 million rupees. These bags will be given to students in phases in 138 several areas of Pakistan. Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS) has started scholarship program under National Outreach Program. The scholarship program has been started for those students who want to avail opportunities to brighten their future. LUMS will provide quality of education through NOP which is a source to provide scholarships and other financial aid. Applicants are eligible if they have done matriculation in session 201112, got over 80% marks in matric and cant pursue their studies due to financial problems. Agriculture Classes and Courses Overview
Agriculture classes prepare students for a variety of careers, including ranchers, farmers, agriculture scientists or horticulture managers. Agriculture courses are found in certificate, associate's and bachelor's degree programs and students learn everything from horticulture basics to how to run a farming business. The following are some of the core courses one might find in an agriculture program. See popular schools in the area of landscape architecture design . Natural Resources Course A natural resources course covers topics pertaining to forestry, soils and wildlife. Students learn about power sources, such as electric motors and combustion engines, as well as government regulations and programs that relate to natural resource conservation. The effects that current power sources have on the agriculture industry and what it means for the future of natural resources and power are also addressed. Basic Horticulture Course Horticulture is a science that studies plants, gardening and natural growth. This course helps students develop skills in controlling plant growth and development. Specific topics of study may include plant production, pruning, regulations of plant growth and storage processes. Horticulture courses may also cover marketing concepts in horticulture. Animal Science Course Depending on the focus of the agriculture program, animal science classes may focus on all animals or be specific to horses, cows, and other farm animals. Students learn about animal development from a biological standpoint. Specific topics in animal products, animal feeding and animal breeding are also covered. During an animal science course, students learn the history of the animal industry, animal disease and current trends in animal rearing as well. Soils and Pesticides Course Agriculture students learn about soils and pesticides to understand the chemical makeup and effect that these elements have on crop growth. A soils and pesticides course covers conservation of water and soil, fertilizer use and soil formation. It is a course that is delivered in lecture and lab format so that students may apply their skills to live scenarios. This course that may also cover soil types specific to the state in which the agriculture program is taught. Food Systems Course Whether providing crop or animal food, famers and others in the agriculture business need a strong understanding of the U.S. food system and processes. Students in this course study the U.S. food system as it relates to the current economy, health factors and regulatory laws. Specific topics of study may include political systems, health, environment, food retailing and international food regulations. Much of the Corporate Finance topic area is conceptual and the points can be picked up through a quick run through your study guide. We’ll review some of the ideas hear but don’t neglect the section completely. Get the concepts and basic formulas down and then spend the extra time on problem areas.
Types of Dividends and other Forms of Shareholder Returns Dividends are usually paid out on a regular or special basis. Regular dividends fromU.S.companies are paid on a quarterly basis with the holderofrecord date two business days after the exdividend date. The exdividend date is the first day the shares trade without the dividend so anyone with the shares on the day before will receive the dividend on the payment date. Special dividends, more often from cyclical companies experiencing a profit windfall, are rare and set by the board of directors. Liquidating dividends may be paid to shareholders when a company dissolves and is treated as a capital gain or loss for tax purposes. Statistics Tutorial: How to Test HypothesesThis lesson describes a general procedure that can be used to test statistical hypotheses. A General Procedure for Conducting Hypothesis TestsAll hypothesis tests are conducted the same way. The researcher states a hypothesis to be tested, formulates an analysis plan, analyzes sample data according to the plan, and accepts or rejects the null hypothesis, based on results of the analysis.
Test Your Understanding of This LessonProblem 1 In hypothesis testing, which of the following statements are always true? I. The Pvalue is greater than the significance level. (A) I only Solution The correct answer is (E). The Pvalue is the probability of observing a sample statistic as extreme as the test statistic. It can be greater than the significance level, but it can also be smaller than the significance level. It is not computed from the significance level, it is not the parameter in the null hypothesis, and it is not a test statistic. Regards, Asad Ali.Statistics Tutorial: Hypothesis TestsA statistical hypothesis is an assumption about a population parameter. This assumption may or may not be true. The best way to determine whether a statistical hypothesis is true would be to examine the entire population. Since that is often impractical, researchers typically examine a random sample from the population. If sample data are not consistent with the statistical hypothesis, the hypothesis is rejected. There are two types of statistical hypotheses.
For example, suppose we wanted to determine whether a coin was fair and balanced. A null hypothesis might be that half the flips would result in Heads and half, in Tails. The alternative hypothesis might be that the number of Heads and Tails would be very different. Symbolically, these hypotheses would be expressed as H_{0}: P = 0.5H_{a}: P ≠ 0.5 Suppose we flipped the coin 50 times, resulting in 40 Heads and 10 Tails. Given this result, we would be inclined to reject the null hypothesis. We would conclude, based on the evidence, that the coin was probably not fair and balanced. Can We Accept the Null Hypothesis?Some researchers say that a hypothesis test can have one of two outcomes: you accept the null hypothesis or you reject the null hypothesis. Many statisticians, however, take issue with the notion of "accepting the null hypothesis." Instead, they say: you reject the null hypothesis or you fail to reject the null hypothesis. Why the distinction between "acceptance" and "failure to reject?" Acceptance implies that the null hypothesis is true. Failure to reject implies that the data are not sufficiently persuasive for us to prefer the alternative hypothesis over the null hypothesis. Hypothesis TestsStatisticians follow a formal process to determine whether to reject a null hypothesis, based on sample data. This process, called hypothesis testing, consists of four steps.
Decision ErrorsTwo types of errors can result from a hypothesis test.
Decision RulesThe analysis plan includes decision rules for rejecting the null hypothesis. In practice, statisticians describe these decision rules in two ways  with reference to a Pvalue or with reference to a region of acceptance.
These approaches are equivalent. Some statistics texts use the Pvalue approach; others use the region of acceptance approach. In subsequent lessons, this tutorial will present examples that illustrate each approach. OneTailed and TwoTailed TestsA test of a statistical hypothesis, where the region of rejection is on only one side of the sampling distribution, is called a onetailed test. For example, suppose the null hypothesis states that the mean is less than or equal to 10. The alternative hypothesis would be that the mean is greater than 10. The region of rejection would consist of a range of numbers located located on the right side of sampling distribution; that is, a set of numbers greater than 10. A test of a statistical hypothesis, where the region of rejection is on both sides of the sampling distribution, is called a twotailed test. For example, suppose the null hypothesis states that the mean is equal to 10. The alternative hypothesis would be that the mean is less than 10 or greater than 10. The region of rejection would consist of a range of numbers located located on both sides of sampling distribution; that is, the region of rejection would consist partly of numbers that were less than 10 and partly of numbers that were greater than 10. Dear All,
To multiply any 2figure number by 11, we just put the total of two figures in between the two figures: 72x11 = 7 9 2 = 792 ( 7 and 2 are put aside and their sum 7+2=9 is put in between) 43x11= 4 7 3 =473 ( 4 and 3 are put aside and their sum 4+3=7 is put in between) Enjoy Mathematical Fun. a) Random variable  Definition
A random variable is a quantity whose outcome is uncertain. Mutually exclusive events mean one and only one event can occur at any time. Exhaustive events one of the events must occur, i.e. that the listed events cover all possible outcomes b) The two defining properties of probability; Two defining properties of Probability. i. Probability of any event E is a number between 0 and 1, . ii. Sum of the probabilities of any list of mutually exclusive and exhaustive events equals 1. c) Empirical, a priori, and subjective probabilities; Empirical probability is when the probability of an event occurring is estimated from data, usually in the form of a relative frequency. A priori probability is when probability of an event is deduced by reasoning about the structure of the problem itself. These first two approaches to probability are sometimes referred to as objective probabilities because they should not vary from person to person. Subjective probability is when the probability of an event is based on a personal assessment without reference to any particular data. Investors often quote their returns in absolute terms. For example, they might say they earned an 8% return on their portfolio. But if we’re really trying to measure the performance of an investment, then we need to understand absolute versus relative returns too.
In this publication, we’re going to explain the differences between absolute return, also known as total return, and relative return. As part of that explanation, we’ll first provide a definition of each term, as well as its calculation. Next, we’ll talk about why it’s important to consider both measures of an investment’s performance, and provide examples to illustrate this point. Finally, we’ll summarize the value of these two terms, and explain how they can be used by investors to evaluate the growth of their holdings. 
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